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GEOGRAPHY: EARTH SCIENCE - PSC Degree Level Questions and Answers (PART - I)

EARTH SCIENCE - PSC Degree Level Questions and Answers (Part 1)

PSC Degree Level Syllabus Based Questions and Answers: GEOGRAPHY: EARTH SCIENCE - PSC Degree Level Questions and Answers –Basics of Geography – Earth Science – Landforms- Geography Questions and Answers

പി.എസ്.സി. ഡിഗ്രിലെവൽ സിലബസിനെ അടിസ്ഥാനമാക്കി തയ്യാറാക്കിയ വിവരങ്ങൾ. 
PSC Degree Level Questions and Answers
• River Brahmaputra is called Tsangpo in Tibet.

• The state UP in India is known for the famous lake ‘Fulhar’

• Shyok, Gilgit and zaskar are the tributaries of the Indus river.

•  Indus river system is known as Singi khamban or Lion’s Mouth in Tibet. It originates from a glacier near Bokhar chu in the Kailash Mountain range.

• Majuli is the river island of Brahmaputra 

• Kabini, Bhavani and the Amravati are the important tributaries of the Kaveri river.

• River Mahanadi rises near Sihawa in the Raipur district of Chhattisgarh and runs through Orissa to discharge its water into the Bay of Bengal.

• River Godavari rises in the Nasik district of Maharashtra and discharges its water into the Bay of Bengal.

• Peninsular rivers are characterized by fixed course, absence of meanders and non-perennial flow of water.

• Plant community which has grown naturally without human aid and has been left undisturbed by humans for a long time- virgin vegetation.

• Laterite soil is formed due to intense leaching. They are fully equipped with organic matter.

• The red colour of red soil is due to the presence of iron.

• Sandy soil has air space and loosely packed.

• Oxidation of minerals in rock is an example of chemical weathering.

• Tropical Evergreen forests are found in the Western Ghats, hills of the northeastern region and the Andaman and Nicobar islands.

• Deciduous forests are divided into the moist and dry deciduous on the basis of the availability of water.

• Pine, Acacia, Pasur trees belong to tropical deciduous forests.

• Dry Deciduous forest and scrubs grow in areas where the rainfall is between 50cm-100 cm

• Mangrove forest is called Tidal forest because of its dense growth.

• The seasonal or periodic movement of pastoral farmers with their livestock over relatively short distances seeking fresh pastures between two areas of different climatic conditions is called as- Transhumance.

• Black soil is concentrated over the Decan lava tract which includes parts of Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and
Tamil Nadu. Black soil shares 15% of all types of soil in India.

• Ravines are fluvial slope landform of relatively steep (cross-sectional) sides. It is a deep valley that is formed due to linear/dendritic fluvial erosion

• Gully erosion is common on steep slopes.

• Black soils are rich in metals such as Iron, Magnesium and Aluminum. Typical characteristics of black soil are swelling (during the wet period) and shrinkage (dry period)

• Ukai project is in river Tapi, Sardar Sarovar project is in river Narmada and Salal project is in river Chenab.

• River Godavari is known as Dakshina Ganga and it originates from the state of

• Mayurakshi project is in the state of West Bengal.

• River Narmada flows to the Arabian sea

• Nagarjuna Sagar dam is in river Krishna

• Bhakra Nangal project is made on the river Sutlej.

• Sambhar lake is used for salt production

• Vembanad lake is a lagoon lake in Kerala

• Wular is the largest freshwater lake in India

• Kokonoor is the largest lake in Tibet.

• Parichu lake in Tibet was created due to tectonic activities

• Dal lake is in Jammu and Kashmir

• Pushkar lake in Rajasthan belongs to the Luni river. Its surface area is 22 km

• Loktak lake is the largest freshwater lake in the northeastern states of India.
• Wular lake in Jammu and Kashmir is a freshwater lake and its surface area is spread in the range of 30-260 km square.

• Pulicat lake is in Andhra Pradesh, Maharana Prathap Sagar Lake is in Himachal Pradesh and Badkhal Lake is in Haryana.

• Kolleru is a freshwater lake associated with the Krishna and Godavari rivers. Its surface area is 245 km square.

• Indira Sagar dam located in Madhyapradesh is built on the river Narmada.

• Krishna Raja Sagar dam located in Karnataka is built on the river Cauvery.

• River Ganga is the home for freshwater dolphins

• Ajmer is situated on the banks of river Luni

• Aizwal is situated on the bank of river Tlawng

• At Devaprayag Alaknanda and Bhagirathi meet and take the name Ganga.

• Chlorine is the most abundant dissolved ion in the ocean

• Brahmaputra is the largest river in India

• Chambal is the only perennial river in Madhya Pradesh, which enters Rajasthan at Chaurasigarh.

• Hirakud dam is situated on river Mahanadi

• National Waterway 1 (NW1) is located on river Ganga

• Narmada is the only river in India that runs in a rift valley running west amid the Vindhya and Satpura mountain ranges. River Narmada forms an estuary.

•  Hooghly, Padma, Pasur, Yamuna are the distributaries of river Ganga.

• River Yamuna rises from the Hari-ki-dun-valley and holds water more than the mainstream that merges after Kalsi near Dehradun.

• River Damodar is known as the sorrow of Bengal, river Koshi is known as the sorrow of Bihar.

• Pune city is located near river Mutha

• River Krishna Ganga flows through Jammu and Kashmir

• Shivasamudram fall is found in the course of the Cauvery river.

• River Krishna originates from Mahabaleshwar.

• Pranahita, Indravathi,  Poorna are the tributaries of the river Ganga

• Godavari is the longest peninsular river

• Ganga water treaty was signed between India and Bangladesh in the year 1986.

• Indus water treaty was signed between India and Pakistan in the year 1960.

• Lucknow city is situated on banks of river Gomti.

• Gomti river originates from Pilibhit

• Son river originates from Amarkantak

• Yamunotri glacier is situated on the Banderpoonch peaks that are part of the Mussoorie range of the lower Himalayas.

• River Satluj enters India from Tibet through Shipkila pass.

• Majuli river island is located on the Brahmaputra river.

• Lohit river flows through Arunachal Pradesh

• Baglihar dam is situated on river Chenab

• The height of Kunchikkal falls in Karnataka is 455 meters

• Agaya Ganga falls are located in Tamil Nadu

• Beadon falls are in Meghalaya, Mayod falls are in Karnataka

• Kune falls are located in Lonavla district of Maharashtra

• The height of Meenmutty falls in the Wayanad district of Kerala is 300 meters.

• Hanthni waterfall is located near Jhambughoda sanctuary in Gujarat.

• Lodh falls/Burhaghagh falls are located in Jharkhand.

• Chitrakoot falls are located in Chattisgarh, Katki waterfall is in Andhrapradesh, Rehala waterfalls are located on the Leh-Manali highway in Himachal Pradesh.

• Dudumma falls are located on Machkund river, Niani waterfalls are located on the watercourse of Narmada river.

• First radio programme was broadcasted in 1923.

• The National Waterway 1 or NW1 is located in India and runs from Haldia to Allahabad across river Ganga.

• For traffic management the Indian railway system is divided into 16 zones.

• UP is the second-largest sugar producing state in India.

• Kolkata-Harora is the nucleus of the Hugli Industrial Region.

• Indira Gandhi Canal was meant for Agricultural development.

• ITDP stands for Integrated Tribal Development Programme.

• TISCO is India’s earliest Iron and Steel company.

• The mineral Lignite has another name called  `brown diamond’.

• The state Assam has the majority and the major oil fields in India.

• Greatest Proportion of the total water in India is used for irrigation

• Economic Geography is the location, distribution and spatial organization of economic activities across the world. If represents the traditional subfield of the discipline of geography.

• The southernmost hill ranges in India are known as Cardamon hills

• Andaman and Nicobar Islands enjoys an equatorial climate. This is the only place in India where a volcano is located.

• Tamil Nadu region is nearest to the Gulf of Mannar.

• Tehri Dam is the highest dam in India

• Chilka is the largest lake in India

• Balimela Hydroelectric project is in Odisha, Koyna is in Maharashtra, Kundoh is in Tamil Nadu, Salal is in Jammu and Kashmir.
• Mahanadi, Son and Narmada river of peninsular India have the Amarkantak region as their source.

• River Padma  is formed by Ganga and Brahmaputra.

• The continental shelves of Lakshadweep are originated due to coral reefs.

• The continental shelves of the western coast are due to faulting and submergence.

• The states Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim, Arunachal and Himachal Pradesh have common borders with China.

• Nacondam and Barren are the two Volcanic Islands in the Indian territory.

• Crops like wheat, potato, gram and mustard belong to Rabi crops while paddy, jute sugarcane, corn, Jowar, Bajra and maize belongs to Kharif crops.

• River Mahanadi, Cauvery and Godawari flow into the Bay of Bengal.

• Malaprabha dam is in Karnataka, Panam dam is in Gujarat, Pochampad dam is in Andhrapradesh and Upper Penganga dam is in Maharashtra.

• Kashmir valley in the Himalayas lies between Zaskar and Pir Panjal ranges.

• Rann of Katch region is known for the Asiatic Wild Ass.

• Miri Hills is in Arunachal Pradesh, Mikir Hills is in Assam and Lushai hills is in Mizoram.

• WesternGhats of Kerala is famous for the lion-tailed macaque.

• The Eastern slopes of the western ghats have low rainfall due to their leeward location.

• The traditional name of Sahyadri in the Western Ghats.

• Dhaulagiri peaks are in the Himalayas, Gurusikhar peaks in the Aravali range, Dhupgarh peaks is in the Satpura range and Doda Betta peaks are in Nilgiri Hills.

• Deccan Trap consists of multiple layers of solidified flood basalt

• Kuttanad is the lowest point in India

• Important National Highways and the cities connected are NH 3 -Agra- Mumbai, NH-7 Varanasi-Kanyakumari, NH 21-Chandigarh-Manali, NH 8- Delhi -Jaipur.

• Seaport of Mumbai, Murmagao, Paradeep has a natural harbour.

• Leading states in the production of minerals are- BauxiteOdisha; Mica- Andhra Pradesh; copper- Madhya Pradesh; Zinc-Rajasthan.

• The German meteorologist H.seilkopf coined the phrase ‘Jet stream’ in his research paper of 1939.

• Sir Gilbert Walker recognized the interannual change in the tropical atmosphere as the Southern Oscillation (SO). Southern Oscillation is also known as EI Nino.

• Cold waters in the eastern and central pacific causes La Nina, La Nina is referred to as the cold phase of ENSO and EI Nino as the warm phase of ENSO.

• The place Titagarh is associated with paper manufacturing

• Ankleshwar is famous for the exploration of oil and natural gas.

• Digboi is the oldest Oil Refinery in India.

• Important mineral oil locations are Uranium- Singhbhum, Thorium-Travancore, Copper-Anantapur, BauxiteBelgaum, Kolhapur, Iron- Mayurbhaji, ManganeseShimoga, Mica- Nellore.

• Important industrial locations are Aluminium - Renukoot, heavy electrical - Jagdishpur, Petrochemicals-Vadodara, Cotton textiles- Coimbatore, Steel- Bhadravati, Electrical motors- Coimbatore, Railway coach-Kapurthala, Gem cutting- Surat

• MIG engines are assembled at Koraput

• Rupnarainpur is known for Hindustan Cable Factory.

• Hindustan Antibiotics Plant is located in Mumbai, the Indian Railways Factory-Diesel Component Works (DCW) located at Patiala.

• Sindri is known as a fertilizer plant

• Among Indian states Gujarat state has the largest petrochemical complex.

• The region Avadi is known for ‘Heavy Vehicles Factory’

• The credit for the first scientific studies of the monsoon winds goes to Arabs.

• The National Bamboo Mission launched in 2006-07 is a completely centrally sponsored programme.

• National Horticulture Mission was launched during the 10th five-year plan.

• The Minimum Support Price (MSP) for food grains was introduced in the year 1964.

• Gujarat is the largest cotton growing state in India.

• Tinkathia system during British rule in India was to cultivate indigo on
3/20th of land.

• Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) was established in India in 1929.

• Equatorial climatic region is well known for natural rubber called Hevea Brassilliensis

• Siberian climate is characterised by a bitterly cold winter of long duration and cool brief summer.

• Group of countries including Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Denmark are together called Scandinavia.

• The horse latitudes are subtropical regions known for calm winds and little precipitation. They are located at about 30 degrees north and south of the equator.

• Air Masses Theory named the meeting place of south-east trade winds in the southern hemisphere and northeast tradewinds in the northern hemisphere as Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone.

• The ITCZ (Intertropical convergence zone) play important role in the global circulation system and also known as the equatorial convergence zone or intertropical front. It is a basic low-pressure belt encircling the earth near the equator. It is a zone of convergence where the trade winds meet. ITCZ shifts only between 50⁰ to 75⁰ of latitude north or south of the equator.

• Al Masaudi was an Arab explorer from Baghdad, gave an account of the reversal of ocean currents and the monsoon winds over the North Indian plains.

• Edmund Halley in1686 explained that the monsoon is the resultant of the thermal contrasts between continents and ocean due to their differential heating.

• Europe is separated from Asia by the Caspian Sea and Ural mountains

• Spain and Portugal are together called Iberia

• Yugoslavia, Greece, Romania and Albania situated on the coast of the Black Sea and the Mediterranean sea are called Balkan states.

• Lituania, Latvia and Estonia are together called Baltic states.

• Trans-Siberian rail route is the longest rail route in the world. It connects St. Petersburg in the west and Vladivostok in the east.

• The Volga is the longest river in Europe

• Europe is a continent located entirely in the northern hemisphere.

• Jupiter has the largest number of natural satellites (67)

• Pluto is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.

• Mars has two natural satellites, Phobos and Deimos

• Makemake is a dwarf planet and discovered by a team led by Michael E Brown on March 31, 2005. It is one of the bodies that caused Pluto to lose its status as a planet.

• The word planet comes from the Greek word ‘planetai’ which means wanderers.

• Mercury is the smallest planet in the solar system, there is no atmosphere on Mercury.

• The surface of Mercury is rocky and mountainous. Venus, the hottest planet of the solar system has no moon or satellite of its own. It rotates on its axis from east to west. The mass of Venus is 4/5 times that of the earth. It is called morning star or evening star.

• Mars, the red planet is almost half the size of the earth.

• Jupiter the largest planet in the solar system has 16 satellites and has faint rings around it. It consists of hydrogen and helium in gaseous form. Its  cloud-like outer region consists of methane in gaseous form while ammonia is
present in crystalline form.

• Saturn, the least dense among all other planets has three beautiful rings, 18 satellites. Its density is less than that of water.

• Uranus discovered by Willam Herschel in 1781. Hydrogen and Methane have been elected in the atmosphere of Uranus. It has a highly tilted rotational axis and has 17 satellites.

• Neptune has 8 satellites

• The Thermal Theory of Monsoon was propounded by British scholars namely Dudley Stamp and Baker. According to this theory, the temperature is the main reason for the origin of monsoons.

• The Equatorial Westerly Theory has been propounded by Flohn. He states that the equatorial westerly is the south-west monsoon that is originated because of intertropical convergence.

• The Jet Stream Theory is a study of a narrow belt of high altitude westerly winds in the troposphere. Its speed varies from 110 km/h in summer to 184 km/hr in winter. This system works as a cover over the earth which affects
the weather of the lower atmosphere. This theory was propounded by the Yest.

• EI Nino is a name given to the periodic development of a warm ocean current along the coast of Peru as a temporary replacement of the cold Peruvian current. EI Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and La Nina refer to large-scale changes in sea surface temperature across the eastern tropical pacific.

• Koeppen’s climate classification system is the most widely used system for classifying the world’s climate. The Koeppen system recognizes five major climatic types; each type is designated by a capital letter viz A-Tropical moist wood is used for making railway sleepers.

• The pine trees are found at greater heights in the Himalayan region.

• The Mulberry forests are mostly found in Karnataka, that’s why Karnataka is the largest producer of raw silk.

• Jharkhand is the largest producer of lac

• The Tendu trees are mostly found in Madhya Pradesh. Its leaves are used for making beedies.

• The maximum area of Sabai grass is in Madhya Pradesh

• Madhya Pradesh is the largest producer of bamboo followed by Assam.

• The Central Coconut Research Institute is in Kasargod.

• The Forest Research Institute located at Dehradun in Uttarakhand is an institute of the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education and is a premier institution in the field of forestry research in India, In 1991, it was
declared a deemed university by the UGC.

• Wildlife Institute of India-Dehradun; Indian Institute of Forest Management-Bhopal; Indian Plywood Industries Research and Training Institute-Banglore; Govind Ballabh Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development-Almore are the institutes under India’s Ministry of Environment and Forests.

• Social forestry refers to the management and protection of forests and afforestation on barren lands with the purpose of helping in the environmental, social and rural development. The term was first used in India in 1976 by the
National Commission on Agriculture, Govt of India. Urban forestry, Rural forestry and Farm forestry are the components of social forestry according to National Commission on Agriculture.  

* Piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water - Island

* A body of land surrounded by water on three sides - peninsula

* A naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water - strait

* A chain or set of islands grouped together -Archipelago
* The largest archipelago in the world - Indonesia
*World’s largest peninsula - Arabia

* Rohtas pass cuts through the Pir Panjal range and links Manali and Leh by road

* Banihal pass has been created by Indus river

* Mana pass make way to the land route between Kailash and the Manasarovar
* Zoji La Pass link the Srinagar to Leh

* Tropic of Cancer divided India into two equal parts

* Arabian sea is the home of Lakshadweep
* Kashmir Himalaya region supports the Karewa formation

* Loktak lake is situated in Manipur

* 10⁰ channel separated the Andaman from the Nicobar

* Nilgiri hills ranges are dominated by ‘Dodabeta’ peak
* River Kosi is called the sorrow of Bengal

* Ganga river has the largest river basin in India

* 82⁰30’E longitudes are the standard meridian of India

* Mahendragiri is the highest peak in the Eastern Ghats

* The western coastal strip, south of Goa is referred to as Kannad
* Mountain ranges in the eastern part of India forming its boundary with Myanmar are collectively called as-Purvanchal

* the Godavari is the longest river of peninsular India
* Sambhar lakes is a saltwater lake

* The river Narmada originates from Amar Kantak
* Wular lake is located in Jammu and Kashmir
* Climate variability and predictability is the first research project the programmer that focused on the EI Nino Southern Oscillation
and its predictability  

* Environmental degradation is the highlights of the rally for the valley’ programme in India.

* Paleozoic is the era of the origin of the continental shelf

* Gulf of Mannar is located on Tamil Nadu coast

* The state of Uttar Pradesh is called the sugar bowl of India

* Hyderabad and Secunderabad are called twin cities

* Duncan pass is located in south and little Andaman

* India’s permanent research station Dakshin Gangotri is situated in Antarctica

* India has a tropical monsoon type climate
* Alternating seasons is the chief characteristic of India’s climate
* Pampore in Jammu and Kashmir is famous for ‘Saffron cultivation’

* Geographically the Vindhya Range separates northern India
from southern India
* The Thar desert continues into Pakistan as the Cholistan desert

* Most of the Thar desert is situated in Rajasthan, covering 61% of its geographic area.
* The reservoir Gandhisagar is on the river Chambal
* Air currents in the upper layers of the atmosphere known as jet streams could determine the arrival of the monsoon and departure of the monsoons

* In India, the region of Punjab receives rainfall from the winter
* The reason for the tropical climate of India is the location of the Himalayas in the north
* Rann of the Kutch region is famous for the Asiatic wild ass.
* Gujarat state has the largest coastline

* Zaskar range is in Kashmir, Dhauladhar range is in Himachal Pradesh and Kumaon range is in Uttarakhand

* Kashmir valley lies in the Zaskar and Pir Panjal Himalayan
mountain range.
* Rivers Godawari, kaveri and Mahanadi form delta
* Baglihar hydropower project is located in Chenab  

* Ganga and Brahmaputra river systems formed the river Padma

* The world’s second-highest mountain peak K2 (Godwin Austen) which has a height of 8611 meters, belongs to Karakoram mountain ranges

* El Nino occurs at irregular intervals carries warm water and its atmospheric equivalent is southern oscillation.
* Black clay soil is characterized by cranks and shrinks when it dries
* Kerala is famous for the tropical forest of silent valley
* The highest peak in the Ladakh range is Mt. Rakaposhi (The steepest peak in the world)
* Nathpa Jhakri Hydel power project is situated in the state of Himachal Pradesh.
* River Krishna and Koyna originated near Mahahateswar Maharashtra
* Ankleshwar is famous for the exploration of oil and natural gas
* Punjab (Dhariwal) is famous for its woollen goods
* Dadra and Nagar Haveli witness more than 50% tribal population of the total

* Alluvial soil covers 40 per cent part of the total geographical area of India

* Alluvial soils are formed due to depositional work done by rivers in plains, valleys, flood plain and deltas
* Regur soils or black cotton soils are formed by the solidification of lava spread over a large area of the Deccan plateau. These soils are rich in mineral contents because they are formed due to volcanic activities. These soils are found in Karnataka, Maharashtra, MP, Gujarat, AP and Tamil Nadu.
* Sharavati river system created the jog waterfalls
* The Luni river is flowing from the region of Rajasthan
* The Tapti river is flowing from the Satpura range.

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